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Everything You Didn't Know About Wheat


Wheat belongs to real breads, like rye, barley, oats (millet breads - millet, rice, sorghum, corn). It has the largest number of varieties of all cereals. Along with the well-known varieties, there are many local varieties. The classification of wheat in agriculture differs from that adopted in biology. The primary feature is the shape of the ear and stem, the shape and chemical composition of the grains matter. The systematization of varieties may differ - there is no agreement on this issue yet.

Everything You Didn't Know About Wheat

Description of cereal

Wheat or from the Latin Triticum is a herbaceous plant, one of the main crops in many countries. To establish the origin, scientists worked with the genetic code of the cereal. For comparison, wild and cultivated wheat variants were used. Thanks to research, we can say that it appeared in the southeast of Turkey. Although there are other opinions, for example, Nikolai Vavilov, believes that the first appearance (homeland) of the plant is Armenia.

The history of cereals began thousands of years ago and gradually the appearance and its qualities changed, thanks to human intervention.

Today, wheat is divided into two main groups according to the quality of the straw and the ear. The ease of further processing of the cut cereal depends on these features: real wheat (first group) - the grain is easily separated from the flower film, the ear sits firmly on the stem, the straw is flexible and elastic enough not to be crushed during threshing; spelled (second group) - grains are difficult to separate from the film, the ear easily moves away from the straw, which is easily broken during threshing.

The division by hardness, focused on the quality of English (soft) and Polish (hard) wheat, correlates with the above. The first includes such a list of varieties as Kostroma, Sandomierka, Girka, Kuyavskaya and other awnless ones, of the spinous ones - Samarka, Saxon, White Koloska, Red Koloska and a number of others, both winter and spring. Solid - spring and spinous: ganovka, beloturka, krasnoturka, kubanka, chernokoloska and a number of others. Features:

  • The straw is thin-walled, hollow along the entire length, thick-walled and filled with a spongy mass everywhere or near the ear;

  • Ear - shorter and wider in soft varieties, in English a large inflorescence is densely planted with spikelets and expanded in width, Polish ones are more like a reed, with elongated films, the grains sit tighter and require more effort when threshing;

  • Awns - practically absent in soft varieties or do not exceed the length of the ear, in durum wheat they can cover the size of the ear by 2-3 times;

  • Grains - in Polish wheat are long, reminiscent of rye seeds, yellow-amber, in English they are short, pot-bellied towards the middle, and less ribbed, white or with a reddish tint, the nutritional value determined by protein analysis devices is also different.

In the classification by type of hardness, another option is distinguished - durum. Durum is a durum wheat variety, the distinctive feature of which is considered to be a high gluten content. It is excellent for both baking and pasta production.

The use of wheat in the food industry directly depends on the hardness. Soft wheat is used as a raw material for baking flour. Groats and pasta are made from durum varieties. The gluten obtained from them is elastic and strong.

As a rule, flouriness and vitreousness coincide with the properties of hardness and softness. The first grains flatten easily when crushed, revealing a rather loose white core. If the grain cracks into pieces of irregular shape, and the inside is yellowish, translucent, it is a vitreous grain. Color and strength are due to less or more bonding between the particles. There is also an average type of grains, inside which both types of core are found. Two Hungarian varieties are widely distributed: Banat and Tey, which have similar properties.

Division of wheat into types

A detailed classification implies 6 types according to maturity and botanical features. Those, in turn, are divided into subtypes according to the characteristics of the grain.
  1.  Soft red spring wheat, subtypes:
  • glassiness not less than 75%, dark red middle;
  • vitreousness - 60% and above, red;
  • from 40% glassiness, light red;
  • less than 40%, yellow grain.
      2. Hard spring wheat, subtypes:
  • glassiness 70% and above, dark amber;
  • light amber, without normalization of consistency.
      3. Spring white-grain wheat, soft:
  • With vitreousness up to 60% (subtype 2);
  • And above (subtype 1).
     4. Soft winter red winter wheat:
  • glassiness not less than 75%, dark red middle;
  • vitreousness - 60% and above, red;
  • from 40% glassiness, light red;
  • less than 40%, yellow grain.
   5.Winter soft white grain.
   6.Winter hard white grain.

Wheat that corresponds in vitreousness to one or another subtype, but does not correspond in color, is referred to this subtype. If the grain loses color due to improper maturation, harvesting or storage, it is marked as "darkened" or "discolored" (depending on the shade) with an indication of the subtype and degree of discoloration.

Wheat classes

There are 5 food grades. Sometimes soft wheat is divided into 6 classes (together with the highest), and durum - into 5. Only the first 4 classes are suitable for eating. It is possible to determine the class of wheat by the worst of the parameters for assessing the quality of varietal grain. To do this, manufacturers are studying several indicators at once.

You can set the classiness of wheat by the following parameters:

  • Appearance;
  • Gluten content;
  • Smell;
  • Colour;
  • Vitreousness.

Separately consider the content of germinated grains and debris. There are several standards by which food wheat is judged: gluten quantity and quality, and protein (protein) content. If we consider the possibility of using raw materials for the manufacture of products on the basis of the latter, then the percentage of the amount of wheat that will be suitable is 3-5% higher.

However, in baking, the presence of gluten is more important. Below is a table that shows the division of wheat into classes on this basis.

Wheat class:Description of wheat class:
☀️ SupremeThis is the so-called strong wheat. The list includes only those plants that meet the requirements of the highest class in all of the above indicators.
🌾 Second:They are in great demand in the production of bakery and other products of the food industry.
☀️ Third:Contains at least 23% gluten. Used for baking without upgrading, but does not upgrade other classes
🌾 Fourth:Weak wheat requiring improvement of strong
☀️ Fifth:Feed wheat - used only as animal feed.
🌾 International wheat quality classification:The classification of wheat into types and subtypes, which is recognized in the world, differs from that recognized in individual countries.
To measure the quality of wheat, a special device is also used - IDK. It shows the gluten deformation index. The lower the reading, the higher the quality. So a good index is from 45 to 75, a satisfactory one is from 80 to 100.

Manufacturers both in Ukraine and all over the world strive to increase the class indicators. This is one of the steps to reduce the percentage of hungry on the planet. However, recent indicators indicate a regular decrease in protein content and other indicators. Today, in order to improve quality, many manufacturers resort to the use of special dry wheat gluten, which is added to flour.

Division into winter and spring

Wheat has all sorts of varieties and has thousands of varieties. In addition to the above methods of classification, there is a division into spring and winter, depending on when it grows.

The first one tolerates low temperatures well. It ripens at temperatures from + 12-13 degrees, and also withstands frosts down to -6. For a high yield, it is necessary to carefully monitor the condition of the field. Because the ardent does not like the neighborhood with weeds. It also depends on how much wheat grows, so winter wheat has higher rates, therefore it is resistant to weeds. At the same time, it is very whimsical to the state of the soil. Its yield directly depends on fertilizers.

There is a way to distinguish the seeds of winter crops from spring crops. This can be done two weeks after planting. Winter crops will not change their shape, remaining a hemisphere, while spring crops will stretch out.

Grain, grain and weed impurities

The grain mass has a heterogeneous composition, in addition to the grain itself, two more types of impurities are distinguished. The "grain" fraction includes: whole grains, damaged, but not meeting the criteria for impurities, 50% by weight of corroded or broken grains without taking into account the nature of the damage, for the fifth class - the inclusion of seeds of other grain crops that are not related to impurities according to the standards of these types. Grain impurities include:

  • The remaining 50% by weight of corroded or broken grains, without taking into account the nature of the damage;
  • Crushed, feeble, swollen during drying, frost and green grains;
  • Damaged, with a shade of shell and cream or light brown endosperm;
  • Sprouted - with a sprout, root or without these signs, but correspondingly deformed and changed color;
  • For classes from the highest to the fourth - inclusions of spelt, barley, rye that are not related to weed impurities according to their criteria;
  • For the fifth class - grain admixture of other cereals and leguminous crops.
Weed impurity are:

  • The passage of a sieve with a cell diameter of 1 mm and the entire residue on such a sieve;
  • Mineral impurities - particles of earth and other mineral substances;
  • Organic impurities - non-grain particles of wheat (stem, leaves, film);
  • Seeds and particles of all wild plants;
  • Grains of wheat and other breads with obviously spoiled, black or brown endosperm;
  • Fusarium and other diseased grain;
  • Harmful impurities - ergot, smut, eel, elm, mustard, sophora, thermopsis, chaff, heliotrope, trichosemide;
  • For classes from the highest to the fourth - seeds of other cultivated plants, except for barley, spelled, rye;
  • For the fifth class - a weedy admixture of other cereals and leguminous crops, as well as all oilseeds.

How to choose durum wheat pasta?

Pay attention to labeling. "Group A", "1st class", or "durum wheat", for Italian and other foreign goods - "durum", "semolina di grano duro". The cheapest pasta is always soft wheat. There is a marking: “group B” (high-glassy soft flour), “group B” (soft wheat), “1st class” or “2nd class” (highest and first grade flour, respectively).

Frequently asked questions about wheat:

Which wheat is healthier?

Products made from durum wheat flour are considered more useful because they contain more vegetable proteins, fiber and minerals. In addition, pasta made from durum flour retains its shape better during cooking.

How can a wheat allergy manifest itself?
The main symptoms of a wheat allergy appear on the skin and in the airways, often immediately after eating. However, it can also cause indigestion, which can happen after a while.

How much does one grain of wheat weigh?
The weight of one grain, determined by weighing 1,000 grains, counted without selection from an average seed sample. The resulting weight in grams represents the average weight of one grain in milligrams. Good A.V. h. The main crops are as follows: winter rye 32 mg, winter wheat 40-42 mg, barley 42 mg, spring wheat 35 mg, oats 24 mg, buckwheat 20 mg .

Is it possible to sow wheat after a sunflower?
You can sow winter wheat immediately after harvesting granstar-resistant sunflower. In the case of sunflower resistant to Granstar, there is no need to maintain an interval of 3-3.5 months, unlike sunflower under Eurolighting, or to apply humic preparations

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